Poultry diseases refer to the arrival of bad health to the domesticated birds, which provide eggs, meat or feathers. Poultry, one of the most important sources of protein, includes chicken, turkeys, duck, goose and ostrich etc. Therefore, the diseases of poultry are becoming an issue at national and international levels. If the producers of the poultry want to get a profit from their investment on poultry farming then they have to always be conscious to prevent the poultry diseases that can attack to their farms anytime. Poultry diseases are of many types and they can be recovered too.
Types of Poultry Diseases:
The main types are infectious respiratory, miscellaneous viral, neoplastic, infectious viral of ducks, deficiency diseases and so many. There are many specific diseases, which belong to these categories.
1) Newcastle Disease: A paramyxovirus is responsible for this disease. The virus is transmittable through the discharge from the nostrils of the poultry folks. This disease mainly affects chickens. Affected chickens begin to suffer from breathing problem and they produce eggs with thin shells.
2) Chronic respiratory Disease: The cause of this disease is Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Being affected by this disease, the parent folks multiply the disease by transmitting to their offspring through their egg or contact. Mainly chickens and turkeys are infected by this disease. Young chickens respond to the infection through their lack of appetite, weight loss and breathing problem.
3) Infectious Bronchitis: Here the agent of this disease is Corona-virus. The virus is carried through the air from one bird to another and even from one farm to another. Chickens are more sensible to this disease. Affected older birds will produce eggs lesser than their previous production. Deformed eggs will come hand in hand with this dramatically decreased production.
4) Duck Virus Hepatitis: A picornavirus is in charge of this disease. It affects the liver and makes the colour yellowish. The young ducks are generally affected by this disease and the affected ducks begin to die within few days.
5) Duck Plague: A herpes virus is responsible for this disease. Other birds get the infection when they drink the open aired water. The affected birds become very thirsty and often die suddenly creating a gruff noise.
6) Lymphoid Leucosis: A retro virus creates this disease. It is mainly transmitted through the eggs. Tumors can be found in livers, kidneys of the affected birds resulting in a decreased egg production.
Beside these diseases, there are many poultry diseases like Marek’s Disease, Inclusion Body Hepatitis, Fowl Pox, Infectious Anaemia and so many.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Poultry Disease:
Treatment and prevention are necessary to prevent poultry diseases. After detecting the Newcastle disease, though there is no specific treatment, vaccination is the only thing for the affected folks. Chronic respiratory disease can be found after blood test and instant introduction of antibiotics is entertained to prevent the disease. Vaccination is also necessary. Isolating the virus of the infectious bronchitis in the laboratory, the treatment starts.
Vaccination is needed to prevent the spreading of the disease. Serum therapy can be done in case of the Duck Hepatitis. To prevent this, the parents of the affected folks should be vaccinated. There is no treatment except prevention for Duck Plague. Clean water should be supplied. Lymphoid Leucosis disease can be cured by the detection of the virus in the laboratory followed by prevention. Though Fowl Fox poultry disease is tough to control, vaccination is the only way to treat the affected folks.